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EXPLAINED: What does laïcité (secularism) really mean in France?

Often at the centre of heated debates, France's state secularism is not always clearly understood by either its proponents or critics. Here's a look at what "laïcité" really means.

EXPLAINED: What does laïcité (secularism) really mean in France?
Three feminist activists placard posters of a drawing by French cartoonist Charb to read " Laicite " in Montreuil, on October 20th, 2020. Photo: AFP

Laîcité, usually translated as secularism, is in brief the principle that everyone in France has the freedom to worship as they choose – but the state itself remains strictly neutral and does not take part in any religious practices.

However that seemingly straightforward concept is the cause of an increasing number of battles and misunderstandings.

Here’s a closer look at what it means. 

What is the definition of secularism?

“There is no one single definition of the concept of secularism,” stated a report by France’s Conseil d’Etat, the legal advisor to the government, titled Un siècle de laïcité (One Century of secularism).

“Untranslatable in most languages, the concept of secularism refers, in the broad sense, to a loss of hold by religion on society,” they wrote.

The report was published in 2004, ahead of the 100-year-anniversary of the 1905 law that became the bedrock of French secularism by formally separating religious and State matters in France.

While that law – Law on Separation of the Churches and State – did not actually employ the term laïcité, it is the number one legal reference for the principle of secularism today in France.

Where does it come from? 

Secularism’s roots go back to French Revolution of 1789. Enlightenment thinkers felt reason and universal values had to be protected.

The 19th century saw a battle between the “two Frances”, with secular republicans struggling to contain the power of the dominant Catholic Church.

After 1862, when education became free and secular, that battle became a culture war. Secular schoolteachers – nicknamed the “Black Hussars of the Republic” after their black coats – took on the Catholic clergy for the hearts and minds of every village in France.

Laïcité was enshrined in the French Constitution in 1946. Article 1 states “La France est une République laïque” (France is a secular republic). 

Is it only French?

France’s secularism has influenced many countries including Mexico, which also used it to counter the power of the Catholic Church.  

But it was most whole-heartedly taken up in Muslim-majority Turkey by it modern founder Ataturk. Turkey’s current president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, has spent much of his 17 years in power trying to roll that back.

What exactly does it mean?

It’s a complicated matter, which is not made easier by the fact that there is no clear, simple definition of the term.

But secularism is a principle that is supposed to evolve with the times, legal scholars have stressed.

The French government has a website page dedicated to the question Qu’est-ce que la laïcité ? (What is secularism?). 

Their long explanation can be summed up in four core principles, collected from a 2013 legal decision by the French Constitutional Council, the body in charge of reviewing constitutionality of French laws. These are:

  • state neutrality;
  • respect for all beliefs and equality of all citizens before the law without distinction of religion;
  • freedom to worship;
  • the absence of official worship.

What does that mean in practice?

Secularism in France is a principle meant to guarantee freedom for each individual to believe whatever they want and exercise this right as they please without interference from the state.

At the same time, religion must be exercised in the private, not public, sphere.

The state must be neutral, which means that public officials cannot wear religious signs. Crosses, hijabs, kippahs and other religious clothing or symbols are therefore banned from public institutions such as schools and for public officials on duty (teachers, police officers, firefighters).

There are also no displays of religion in public institutions, so schools do not have prayer meetings, religious assemblies or religious events such as Nativity Plays at Christmas.

Are there exceptions?

In France, there are nearly always exceptions to a rule. Despite its strict secularism, French public holidays still mark Christian holidays including Christmas, Easter and more obscure ones like Assumption and Ascension Day.

At the same time, far-right party Rassemblement National has not yet succeeded in its mission to decorate French town and city halls with Christian cribs at Christmas. That said, official buildings such as mairies do put up decorations at Christmas, usually some nice twinkly lights that are festive without being overtly Christian.

Secular laws do not, however, apply in quite the same way in the eastern borderlands of Alsace-Lorraine, where Christian and Jewish clerics are paid by the state, for historical reasons linked to wars with Germany.

READ MORE: EXPLAINED: Does France really have a hijab ban?

Is it changing in modern time?

French secularism has been on the defensive since the late 1980s with the emergence of identity politics, Christian and Jewish revivalism and most of all, radical Islam, given the movement of Muslims from its former colonies since the 1950s.

In 2004 France banned “the wearing of conspicuous religious symbols or garb” in state schools. It became known as “the French headscarf ban” abroad, though it applies to symbols of all religions.

In 2010 France banned the niqab, the full-face veil, in public places – although this law was eventually framed as a security concern and actually covers all full-face coverings. Several local authorities had attempted to ban the burkini, the full-cover swimsuit, on their beaches, but this was overturned by the courts.

What does it NOT mean?

Secularism is often misunderstood in France today, even by government officials. In September, a French MP of ruling party La République en Marche caused a stir when she refused to participate in a parliamentary session together with a Muslim woman who was wearing the headscarf. 

While MPs and staff in public buildings in France are forbidden from wearing religious clothing, that rule does not apply to visitors, like the woman in question.

As a citizen and not a public official, she was exercising her right to religious freedom in accordance with French law cited above.

“The problem we are seeing today is that we want to impose neutrality on individuals, which is the opposite of laïcité,” said Rim-Sarah Alouane, a French legal scholar and law Phd candidate who specialises in religious freedom, human rights and civil liberties in France, Europe and North America.Alouane told The Local she prefers not to translate laïcité to secularism, for accuracy purposes.

France’s interior minister also caused uproar when he said supermarket chains should abolish their separate food aisles for ethnic foods. The comment, which was hailed by some rightwing commentators as a bold defence of secularism, caused critics to call out the interior minister as misusing the core principle to further his own political agenda.

As private businesses supermarkets – and all other stores – are not bound to observe laïcité in the same way as government agencies and public officials.

ANALYSIS: Why does France’s interior minister think supermarket ethnic food isles are a threat to the nation?

Similarly, sports retailer Decathlon was attacked on the grounds of laïcité for offering a ‘running hijab’, although as a private business catering to private individuals it was perfectly entitled to offer the headgear.

“Interfering with religious matters in this way is in itself a violation of laïcité,” Alouane said then.

Laïcité is freedom.”

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For members


GAME: Build your own coalition in France’s parliament

As France's political deadlock continues, the French newspaper Le Monde has developed a tool that allows people to attempt to build their own coalition majority in the Assemblée Nationale.

GAME: Build your own coalition in France's parliament

More than a week after France’s snap elections the parliament is still deadlocked and politicians seem more interested in fighting each other than building alliances.

Therefore France’s newspaper of record Le Monde has suggested that its readers might like to have go instead, creating a ‘build your own coalition’ game.

Following the snap parliamentary elections on July 7th, the left-wing coalition, Nouveau Front Populaire (NFP) got the largest number of seats (193) but fell far short of an absolute majority (289 seats out of 577). They were followed by the centrist bloc with 164 seats and the far-right Rassemblement National and allies in third place with 143. 

Moving forward, there are a few options for how parliament could be governed, with a broad coalition being one of them. However, this possibility remains complicated, as the three major blocs (the left, the centre and the far-right) seem disinterested in working with one another.

READ MORE: Does France have a government right now?

Le Monde has developed a tool that allows users to attempt to build their own coalition, piecing together the individual parties and groups in order to try to create an absolute majority.

Maybe one of their readers will find the solution that is evading the politicians. 

You can test it out for yourself HERE.

When playing, you will be given the option to click on several parties, watching them populate the chamber until you reach (or fail to reach) an absolute majority.  

Once you have reached a majority, you will see a green tick and the message ‘majorité atteinte‘ – you can then begin governing France (we think that’s how it works anyway).

Example of a successful coalition in the French parliament.


In order to play, you will need to know each of the different groups and their political positions

The left

On the left of the political spectrum we have the various members of the Nouveau Front Populaire (NFP), coloured purple in the game. 

NFP – PC: The communist party. Greatly diminished from its heyday in the 1950s and 60s, the party remains a force at a local level, but only won 9 seats in the Assemblée. Led by Fabien Roussel.

NFP – LFI: The largest party within the group is La France Insoumise, with 74 seats. Translating as ‘France unbowed’ this is the party furthest to the left in the NFP. Founded by Jean-Luc Mélenchon.

NFP – EELV: The green party, part of NFP. Previously Europe Ecologie Les Verts, sometimes still referred to as EELV or Les Verts. They hold 28 seats.

NFP – Géneration.s: Formed in 2017, a splinter party from the original Parti Socialiste. They hold 5 seats, and are part of NFP.

NFP – PS: The centre-left party. One of two that dominated French politics in the post-war period, producing presidents François Mitterand and François Hollande, these days it is much reduced. Current leader – Olivier Faure. They hold 59 seats.

NFP – Rég: MPs representing primarily individual French regions and identities, left-leaning. They have two seats.

NFP – Divers gauche: Other left-wing MPs aligned with NFP. 13 seats, including people like Danielle Simonnet and Alexis Corbière who were previously members of the LFI group.

The rest of the left

Although almost all of the left-wing MPs are part of the Nouveau Front Populaire group (at least for now), but there are some exceptions.

Divers gauche: Non-affiliated left-wing MPs, coloured red in the game;

The centre

Centrist candidates are mostly part of the Ensemble group, which includes Emmanuel Macron’s party and which is coloured yellow in the game.

Ensemble Modem: The original centrist party headed by François Bayrou, now part of the Ensemble alliance with Macron’s party. They hold 33 seats.

Ensemble Horizons: The new centrists founded by Macron’s former prime minister Edouard Philippe, who is strongly tipped to be the centrist candidate in the 2027 presidential elections when Macron himself cannot stand again. Also part of the Ensemble alliance, for now. They hold 25 seats.

Ensemble Renaissance: Emmanuel Macron’s centrist party, spearheading the Ensemble coalition. They were previously named La république en marche (LREM) and before that En Marche. For the sake of convenience, they’re often referred to simply as Macronistes. They hold 102 seats.

Ensemble UDI: Members of the centre-right group that chose to join with the Macronists. Two seats.

Ensemble Divers: Other centrist MPs in the Ensemble group. Six seats.

The rest of the centre

UDI et divers centre: Members of the centre-right group founded in 2012, as well as non-affiliated centrists. Six seats.

The right

The politicians on the right of the political spectrum have not, so far, managed to create any kind of unified alliance so remain within individual parties.

Divers droite: Non-affiliated right-wing MPs. 14 seats.

LR: Les Républicains are the second of the two parties that dominated post war politics (party of Nicolas Sarkozy and Jacques Chirac and political heirs of Charles de Gaulle) this party too is greatly diminished. Originally centre right, it has moved sharply to the right in recent years under leader Eric Ciotti. Ciotti created an electoral alliance with the far-right Rassemblement National which horrified many party members and resulted in a split. The LR designation denotes the part of the party which is not affiliated with far-right Rassemblement National. They hold 46 seats.

LR-RN: The group that is part of the Ciotti/RN alliance is known as Les Républicains à droite or Les amis de Ciotti. 17 seats.

RN: The far-right Rassemblement National. Founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen under the name Front National, the party changed its name to Rassemblement National (national rally) after Le Pen’s daughter Marine took over. She remains the party’s presidential candidate but the party leader – and RN prime minister if the party wins a majority – is Jordan Bardella. They were expected to win a majority of seats, but instead came in third place with 126.

READ MORE: Ask the experts: How far-right is France’s Rassemblement National?

Régionalistes, autres: Other non-affiliated MPs and members of regionalist parties.